Establish > indicate, depict, show> suggest
Undermine > Call into question
Clearly depict >help to carify
Distort > have an influence
Validate證實 > go some ways toward supporting
Have failed to take > have not fully taken
Demonstrate > suggestive a need for
Give blood = donate blood
Vivisection = testing on animals ( in vivo: inside; in vitro:outside)
Hereditary disease = genetic disease (gene, genie /’dʒinɪ/ 精靈)
Donate organ ≠ remove organ
Plastic surgery ≠ cosmetic surgery
A chronic condition ≠ a terminal condition
An abortion ≠ a miscarriage
Cloning ≠ genetic modification
Suicide ≠ euthanasia (assisted suicide, in vegetable stage)
Being disable = having learning difficulties (dyslexia 識字困難, physical and mental disability, color-blind)
I’m a big fan of …= I fully support ….
I get grave reservations about….. = I seriously doubt
a feeling of doubt about a plan or an idea 保留意見；疑惑 countable uncountable
I have serious reservations about his ability to do the job. 我非常懷疑他有沒有能力勝任這項工作。
They support the measures without reservation(= completely). 他們毫無保留地支持這些措施。
A last resort. 最後的手段
he first or last course of action that you should or can take in a particular situation 應急措施；可首先（或最後）採取的手段 the first/last/final ~
Strike action should be regarded as a last resort, when all attempts to negotiate have failed. 罷工應該是最後一着，在所有的談判努力都告失敗時才使用。
In the last resort(= at the most basic level)what really moves us is our personal convictions. 真正驅動我們的最終還是我們的個人信念。
I’m fundamentally(completely) opposed to blood transfusion.
Stand on = support
Designer clothes/ jewellery /’dʒuəlrɪ/ /brand
Give the go-ahead
permission for somebody to start doing something 批准；許可 singular
The council has given the go-ahead to start building. 委員會已批准破土動工。
ruling: an official decision made by somebody in a position of authority, especially a judge 裁決；裁定；判決
A very small chance of success.
a note of chance 一注機會
approval /əˈpruːvl/ 批准，通過，認可 given ~ (for sth) (from sb) to V
It is claimed that ….
It was claimed that some doctors were working 80 hours a week. 據說有些醫生每週工作 80 小時。
Watchdog監察團體 ≠ guard dog看門狗
Medical Ethics (moral issue)
The Hippocratic Oath希波克拉底誓言（醫生保證遵守醫生職業道德的誓言）
Ethical , unethical
It is progress
It is worth a try.
It’s creating false hopes.
It comes to nothing.
It’s a slippery slope.
We’d be better spending money on other
Let the nature take its course.
Sanctity /’sæŋktətɪ/ 神聖 sanctity of life, marriage
They are entering the dangerous territory.
When it comes down to it 歸結起來, it is all about money.
The whole thing’s sick. (=disgested)
It’s just asking for trouble. 自討苦吃
To revolutionize the way we treat disease.
To pave the way for the new treatments.
It sounds a futuristic /ˈfjutʃə’rɪstɪk/ nightmare未來的噩夢
The whole thing is a bit of minefield.
I think that’s a long way off很長的路要走 , don’t you?
It’ll probably come to nothing. = nothing came of it
Contradict yourself. 你恰好與你以前說的自相矛盾。
It’s better for all concerned. (= for all people involved)
It comes down to it. (= In the end)
From what I’ve heard,
Upfront+ about 直爽的