16 Health and medicine

Establish > indicate, depict, show> suggest

Undermine > Call into question

Clearly depict >help to carify

Distort > have an influence

Validate證實 > go some ways toward supporting

Have failed to take > have not fully taken

Demonstrate > suggestive a need for

 

Give blood = donate blood

Vivisection = testing on animals ( in vivo: inside; in vitro:outside)

 

Hereditary disease = genetic disease (gene, genie /’dʒinɪ/ 精靈)

Donate organ ≠ remove organ

Plastic surgery ≠ cosmetic surgery

A chronic condition ≠ a terminal condition

An abortion ≠ a miscarriage

Cloning ≠ genetic modification

Suicide ≠ euthanasia (assisted suicide, in vegetable stage)

Being disable = having learning difficulties (dyslexia 識字困難, physical and mental disability, color-blind)

 

I’m a big fan of …= I fully support ….

I get grave reservations about….. = I seriously doubt

a feeling of doubt about a plan or an idea 保留意見;疑惑 countable uncountable

I have serious reservations about his ability to do the job. 我非常懷疑他有沒有能力勝任這項工作。

They support the measures without reservation(= completely). 他們毫無保留地支持這些措施。

A last resort. 最後的手段

he first or last course of action that you should or can take in a particular situation 應急措施;可首先(或最後)採取的手段 the first/last/final ~

Strike action should be regarded as a last resort, when all attempts to negotiate have failed. 罷工應該是最後一着,在所有的談判努力都告失敗時才使用。

In the last resort(= at the most basic level)what really moves us is our personal convictions. 真正驅動我們的最終還是我們的個人信念。

I’m fundamentally(completely) opposed to blood transfusion.

Stand on = support

 

Designer clothes/ jewellery /’dʒuəlrɪ/ /brand

Designer badies

Give the go-ahead

the go-ahead

permission for somebody to start doing something 批准;許可 singular

The council has given the go-ahead to start building. 委員會已批准破土動工。

 

fruitless   /ˈfruːtləs/沒有成果的;無成效的;徒然的

                  proved fruitless

ruling:  an official decision made by somebody in a position of authority, especially a judge 裁決;裁定;判決

 

A very small chance of success.

a note of chance 一注機會

approval   ˈpruːvl/ 批准,通過,認可 given ~ (for sth) (from sb) to V

 

It is claimed that ….

It was claimed that some doctors were working 80 hours a week. 據說有些醫生每週工作 80 小時。

 

Watchdog監察團體 guard dog看門狗

 

Movie buff

 

Medical Ethics (moral issue)

The Hippocratic Oath希波克拉底誓言(醫生保證遵守醫生職業道德的誓言)

Ethical , unethical

 

It is progress

It is worth a try.

It’s creating false hopes.

It comes to nothing.

It’s a slippery slope.

We’d be better spending money on other

Let the nature take its course.

Sanctity /’sæŋktətɪ/ 神聖 sanctity of life, marriage

They are entering the dangerous territory.

When it comes down to it 歸結起來, it is all about money.

The whole thing’s sick. (=disgested)

It’s just asking for trouble. 自討苦吃

To revolutionize the way we treat disease.

To pave the way for the new treatments.

It sounds a futuristic /ˈfjutʃə’rɪstɪk/ nightmare未來的噩夢

 

 

Minefield /’maɪnˈfild/雷區

The whole thing is a bit of minefield.

I think that’s a long way off很長的路要走 , don’t you?

False hope虛假的希望

It’ll probably come to nothing. = nothing came of it

Contradict yourself. 你恰好與你以前說的自相矛盾。

It’s better for all concerned. (= for all people involved)

It comes down to it. (= In the end)

From what I’ve heard,

Upfront+ about 直爽的

Harsh嚴厲的

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