14_War and Peace (4)

[Say Hollow]


Tyrant, distract, hack, pre-emptive, biased, source, casualty, provocation, sneak, brainwash, so-called, censor, press briefing, loyal, twist, guideline


Guideline; general idea you should follow.


Live broadcast of the presidential debate preempts the regular news hour

CBS is going to preempt its regular programming in order to caution us not to panic.


pre·empt or pre-empt  (pr mpt )

v. pre·empt·ed or pre-empt·ed, pre·empt·ing or pre-empt·ing, pre·empts or pre-empts


1. To appropriate, seize, or take for oneself before others. See Synonyms at appropriate.


a. To take the place of; displace: A special news program preempted the scheduled shows.

b. To have precedence or predominance over: Discussion of the water shortage will preempt the other topics on this week’s agenda.

3. To gain possession of by prior right or opportunity, especially to settle on (public land) so as to obtain the right to buy before others.

v.intr. Games

To make a preemptive bid in bridge.


The Ruvyironza River of Burundi is regarded as the true and ultimate source of the Nile.



Horizontal axis, vertical axis. Axes (plual)



1.       to move slowly and quietly towards an animal or a person, in order to kill, catch or harm it or them偷偷接近,潛近(獵物或人)

    • The lion was stalking a zebra. 獅子偷偷接近斑馬。 VN
    • He stalked his victim as she walked home, before attacking and robbing her. 她步行回家時,他偷偷地接近然後下手襲擊,並且搶了她。

2.       to illegally follow and watch somebody over a long period of time, in a way that is annoying or frightening (非法)跟踪,釘梢 VN

    • She claimed that he had been stalking her over a period of three years. 她聲稱,三年來他一直在釘她的梢。



promiscuous   /prəˈmɪskjuəs/ DJ   /prə‘mɪskjuəs/ KK

  • adjective

1.       having many sexual partners 淫亂的;濫交的 disapproving

      • a promiscuous man/woman 淫亂的男人/女人
      • promiscuous behaviour 淫亂行為
      • a promiscuous lifestyle 不檢點的生活
      • to be sexually promiscuous 性生活淫亂

2.       taken from a wide range of sources, especially without careful thought 大雜燴的;雜亂的 formaldisapproving

      • promiscuous reading 讀書龐雜
      • a stylistically promiscuous piece of music 一支風格雜亂的樂曲



  • Variant: promiscuities

1.       混雜;混亂

2.       亂交


kilt   /kɪlt/ DJ   /kɪlt/ KK

1.       a skirt made of tartan fabric that reaches to the knees and is traditionally worn by Scottish men; a similar skirt worn by women (蘇格蘭男子穿的)蘇格蘭格呢褶裙;女式格呢褶裙 noun





Racial, sex, sectarianism /sɛk’tɛrɪəˈnɪzəm/ discrimination (religion)


Go off = to be fired; to explode 開火;爆炸

  • The gun went off by accident. 槍走火了。
  • The bomb went off in a crowded street. 炸彈在擠滿人群的大街上爆炸了。

Never give in to terrorists and never negotiate with them.

give in (to somebody/something)

1.       to admit that you have been defeated by somebody/something 屈服;認輸;投降

    • The rebels were forced to give in. 叛亂分子被迫投降了。

2.       to agree to do something that you do not want to do 讓步;勉強同意

    • The authorities have shown no signs of giving in to the kidnappers’ demands. 當局對綁架者的要求沒有絲毫讓步的跡象。


Latent (potential) conflict

existing, but not yet very noticeable, active or well developed 潛在的;潛伏的;隱藏的 adjectiveusually before noun

  • latent defects/disease 潛在的缺陷;潛伏性疾病
  • These children have a huge reserve of latent talent. 這些孩子蘊藏着極大的潛在天賦。


emergence   [iˈməːdʒəns] DJ   [ɪˈmɝdʒəns] KK

1.       Noun 出現;浮現;露頭


escalation   [ˌeskəˈleiʃən] DJ   [ˌɛskəˈleʃən] KK

    • Noun Variant: escalations逐步上升;逐步擴大 U C
      • a steady escalation of violence 暴力的逐步上升


stalemate   /ˈsteɪlmeɪt/ DJ   /’stelˈmet/ KK noun

1.       a situation in a dispute or competition in which neither side is able to win or make any progress(辯論或比賽中出現的)僵局,僵持局面 uncountable countable usually singular

      • The talks ended in (a) stalemate. 談判陷入僵局,無果而終。


Dispute settlement

an official agreement that ends an argument between two people or groups (解決紛爭的)協議countable

  • to negotiate a peace settlement 就和平協議進行談判
  • The management and unions have reached a settlement over new working conditions. 資方和工會已就新的工作條件達成協議。
  • an out-of-court settlement(= money that is paid to somebody or an agreement that is made to stop somebody going to court) 庭外和解


dehumanize;   -ise   /ˌdiːˈhjuːmənaɪz/ DJ   /di’hjuməˈnaɪz/ KK

1.       to make somebody lose their human qualities such as kindness, pity, etc. 使喪失人性;使無人性verb VN

    • the dehumanizing effects of poverty and squalor 貧窮和惡劣的環境造成喪失人性的結果


fuel bitterness (Anger and disappointment at being treated unfairly; resentment)

to increase something; to make something stronger 增加;加強;刺激 VN written

  • to fuel speculation/rumours/fears 引起猜測/謠傳/恐懼
  • Higher salaries helped to fuel inflation. 工資提高刺激通貨膨脹。


antagonism   /ænˈɡənɪzəm/ DJ   /æn’tægəˈnɪzəm/ KK

1.       feelings of hatred and opposition 對立情緒;對抗情緒;敵對;敵意 noun uncountable plural~ (to/toward(s) sb/sth) ~ (between A and B) written

    • The antagonism he felt towards his old enemy was still very strong. 他對宿敵的仇恨仍然十分強烈。
    • the racial antagonisms in society 社會上的種族對立情緒


apartheid /əˈpɑːrtaɪt-/ (in South Africa) A policy or system of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race


not publicly acknowledged. To admit it effected.

acknowledge   /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/ DJ   /əkˈnɑːl-/ DJ US   /ək’nɑlɪdʒ/ KK US

  • verb

1.       to accept that something is true 承認(屬實)

      • She refuses to acknowledge the need for reform. 她拒不承認改革的必要性。 VN
      • a generally acknowledged fact 公認的事實
      • I did not acknowledge that he had done anything wrong. 我沒有承認他犯了什麼錯。 V that
      • It is generally acknowledged to be true. 普遍認為那是真的。 VN to inf.


Protestant /’prɑtɪstənt/

a member of a part of the Western Christian Church that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century 新教教徒(16 世紀脫離羅馬天主教)

unionist a person who believes that Northern Ireland should stay part of the United Kingdom 統一主義者,統一派(主張北愛爾蘭繼續為英國的一部份)wants to remain part of UK.



Parliament    /’pɑrləmənt/ KK US

  • an Act of Parliament 議會法案
  • to have/win a seat in Parliament 佔有/贏得議會中的一個議席
  • to be elected to Parliament 當選為議會議員
  • to dissolve Parliament(= formally end its activities)and call an election 解散議會並舉行大選


demonstration   /ˌdemənˈstreɪʃn/ DJ   /ˈdɛmən’streʃən/ KK

  • noun

1.       a public meeting or march at which people show that they are protesting against or supporting somebody/something 遊行示威 countable ~ (against sb/sth)

      • to take part in/go on a demonstration 參加/進行示威遊行
      • to hold/stage a demonstration 舉行示威遊行
      • mass demonstrations in support of the exiled leader 支持流亡領導人的群眾集會
      • anti-government demonstrations 反政府示威遊行
      • a peaceful/violent demonstration 和平/暴力示威




a front (false image) for terrorist

1.        behaviour that is not genuine, done in order to hide your true feelings or opinions 表面;外表singular

    • Rudeness is just a front for her shyness. 她的粗魯只是為了掩飾她的羞怯。
    • It’s not always easy putting on a brave front for the family. 常常為了家人裝出勇敢的樣子並不容易。
    • The prime minister stressed the need to present a united front(= show people that all members of the group have the same opinion about things). 首相強調必須表現出團結一致。

2.       a person or an organization that is used to hide an illegal or secret activity 非法(或秘密)活動掩護者 countable usually singular ~ (for sth)

    • The travel company is just a front for drug trafficking. 這家旅行社不過是毒品交易的掩護場所。


Full-scale riot   /ˈraɪət/ DJ   /’raɪət/ KK

  • noun

1.       a situation in which a group of people behave in a violent way in a public place, often as a protest暴亂;騷亂 countable

      • One prison guard was killed when a riot broke out in the jail. 一位獄警在監獄騷亂中遇難。
      • food/race riots 爭搶食物的暴亂;種族騷亂


contain the spiraling violence

1.       to keep your feelings under control 控制,克制,抑制(感情) written VN

    • She was unable to contain her excitement. 她無法抑制內心的激動。
    • I was so furious I just couldn’t contain myself(= I had to express my feelings). 我氣憤極了,簡直無法克制自己。

2.       to prevent something harmful from spreading or getting worse 防止蔓延(或惡化) written VN

    • to contain an epidemic 防止流行病的蔓延
    • Government forces have failed to contain the rebellion. 政府軍未能遏止叛亂。


Internment (imprisonment without trial審問;審訊)




Be denied basic human rights.

to refuse to allow somebody to have something that they want or ask for 拒絕;拒絕給予~ sth (to sb) ~ (sb) (sth) formal

  • They were denied access to the information. 他們試圖取得這個情報被拒。 VN VNN
  • Access to the information was denied to them. 他們無法得到這個情報。


A breeding ground for

a place where something, especially something bad, is able to develop (尤指壞事物的)滋生地~ (for sth) usually singular

  • This area of the city has become a breeding ground for violent crime. 這個市區已成為暴力犯罪的滋生地。


A hatred for/of terrorist

a very strong feeling of dislike for somebody/something 仇恨;憎恨;厭惡 noun uncountablecountable ~ (for/of sb/sth) ~ (towards sb)

  • He looked at me with intense hatred. 他滿懷敵意地看着我。
  • There was fear and hatred in his voice. 他的聲音裏透露着恐懼和仇恨。
  • She felt nothing but hatred for her attacker. 她對攻擊她的人只有恨。
  • a profound hatred of war 對戰爭的深惡痛絕
  • racial hatred(= between people from different races) 種族仇恨
  • The debate simply revived old hatreds. 這一辯論只不過再次挑起了夙仇。


Be paying high costs in terms of lives and the economy.

in terms of something;   in…terms

1.       used to show what aspect of a subject you are talking about or how you are thinking about it 談及;就而言;在方面

    • The job is great in terms of salary, but it has its disadvantages. 就薪金而言,這個工作倒是挺不錯的,但也有一些不利之處。
    • The decision was disastrous in political terms. 從政治上來看,這個決定是災難性的。
    • He’s talking in terms of starting a completely new career. 他正在談論開創全新的事業。


Spark one of the bloodiest months of the troubles.

to cause something to start or develop, especially suddenly 引發;觸發 VN ~ sth (off)

  • The proposal would spark a storm of protest around the country. 這一提案將引發全國性的抗議浪潮。
  • The riots were sparked off by the arrest of a local leader. 騷亂是因逮捕一名當地領導人而觸發的。
  • Winds brought down power lines, sparking a fire. 大風颳斷電線,引起了火災。


way out =出口;出路;解決之道


a turning point, abandon

track back through the conflict


To convince local resentment and stereotyping of the opposite parties

resentment  /rɪˈzentmənt/ DJ   /rɪ‘zɛntmənt/ KK

1.       a feeling of anger or unhappiness about something that you think is unfair 憤恨;怨恨 noununcountable singular

    • to feel/harbour/bear resentment towards/against somebody 對某人感到/深懷/有怨恨
    • She could not conceal the deep resentment she felt at the way she had been treated. 受到那樣的待遇,她無法掩藏內心強烈的憤恨。
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