Without little marks and spaces, written language is not easy to understand
Discover the delights of proper punctuation
tune in (to something)
1. to listen to a radio programme or watch a television programme 收聽（收音機廣播節目）；收看（電視節目）
To see English evolve.
Woman, without her man, is nothing.
Woman: without her, man is nothing.
[Vicky & Chelsea]
CANYOUIMAGINEHOWHARDITWOULDBETOREADSENTENCESLIKETHIS? The ancient Greeks wrote this way. The lack of punctuation marks probably didn’t bother good readers, though. As they read, they just put pauses (a short period of time) where they fit best. Also at this time, sentences switched directions. A sentence read from left to right. The next one read right to left, and then left to right again, etc.
The ancient Romans sometimes punctuated like this: hey.put.a.point.between.each.word.in.a.sentence. The word punctuation actually comes from this ides and the Latin word punctum( A small, distinct point), which means a prick.
When the 5th century arrived, there were just two punctuation marks: spaces and points. The spaces separated words while the points showed pauses /pɔz/ in reading. Then in the 13th century, a printer named Aldus Manutius tried to standardize /ˈstændədaɪz/ punctuation. He always used a period for a complete stop at the end of a sentence. He used a slash (/) to indicate a short pause. Over time, that slash was shortened and curled [kɝld], and it became the modern comma.
[Traditional Chinese Translation]
When you’re writing in any language it’s important to have a good command of that language’s punctuation. After all, one misplaced punctuation mark could drastically [ˈdræstɪkḷɪ] change the meaning of sentence! Two punctuation marks that are often confused are the colon and semicolon. Two more to watch out for are the dash and the hyphen. As punctuation marks, they perform different functions but they look almost identical
[Ashley & Ken]
K: Excuse me, Ashley. I want to write a thank you letter to the editor of Studio Classroom. Can you take a look at what I wrote or make sure the punctuation is correct?
A: Sure. Let me see it. Hmm, do you mind if I make some marks on your paper?
K: Oh, no, not at all. I want it to be perfect for Doris to read.
A: Okay. I’m sure you’ll make your mark on her. Meanwhile I’m going to make a few marks on your paper.
K: Wait. What do you mean I’ll make my mark on Doris? I’m not going to write on her.
A: (laugh) No, Ken. I mean you are going to have a positive effect on her. She is going to be impressed with your comments and writing skills.
K: Ah, I like the sound of that. Imagine, making a mark on Studio Classroom. Studio Classroom has made its mark on me.
A: Well, it’s better to make a mark than leave a bad mark on something.
K: Oh, really? So I can also leave a mark. Isn’t that the same thing?
A: No. If you leave a mark that usually means something negative. For instance, divorce leaves a mark on kids. War leaves a mark on countries. Bad attitude leave a mark on your reputation.
K: Okay. Well, I want to make a mark with my letter, not leave a mark.
A: Right. And I can help you with that. I just need to make a few marks with my pen.
K: Thanks for your help.
今天這一課是有關punctuation marks（標點符號）， mark就是一個符號、記號。老師常常在家庭作業上make marks，做記號、寫下一些評語，make one’s mark on something就是在某人的心中留下好的印象，但是leave a mark那是留下傷痕或者痕跡，父母親如果離婚往往會leave a mark on the kids（在小孩的心裡留下傷痕）。
punctuation (n) 標點,標點符號
Punctuation sometimes expresses the writer’s feelings.
Points will be deducted for each mistake in punctuation.
de·duct ; Subtract or take away (an amount or part) from a total
switch (v) 改變,轉換 (to)
The politician suddenly switched sides and went against his old allies.
To boost the atmosphere of the party, the DJ switched to another kind of music.
standardize (v) 使標準化,使統一化
The manufacturing process needs to be standardized to ensure the quality of the product.
Curl her hair
Over time, 久而久之, 隨著時間的過去
boost /buːst/ DJ /bust/ KK
1. to make something increase, or become better or more successful 使增長；使興旺 VN
- to boost exports/profits 增加出口；提高利潤
- The movie helped boost her screen career. 那部電影有助於她的銀幕生涯的發展。
- to boost somebody’s confidence/morale 增強某人的信心╱士氣
- Getting that job did a lot to boost his ego(= make him feel more confident). 得到那份工作使他信心倍增。
Christian /ˈkrɪstʃən/ DJ /’krɪstʃən/ KK
1. based on or believing the teachings of Jesus Christ 基督教的；信奉基督教的
2. connected with Christians 基督教徒的
3. showing the qualities that are thought of as typical of a Christian; good and kind 有基督教徒品行的；慈善的；仁慈的；友愛的
- a person who believes in the teachings of Jesus Christ or has been baptized in a Christian church基督徒；基督教徒
She pricked her finger on a needle. 她的手指被針扎了。
Prick your skin.
pause (n) 停頓
switch (v) 切換,變換
punctuation (n) 標點符號
prick (n) 刺,戳
standardize (v) 標準化,規範化
curl (v) 捲曲,彎曲
tune to, punctuation marks, punctuation, pause, drastically change, look identical, prick, make some marks, make it standard, standardize, curled, slash. comma, over time, deduct, ally, politician, manufacturing process
have a good command of 對掌握熟練, 精通, make one’s mark on something, leave a mark on the kids, deduct A from B, went against, change his side