0921_ Psychologists (2)

The who, what and why of mental health
Our expert explains what psychologists do and how they

[Steve]

 

[Chip & Chelsea]

C: What makes a person mentally healthy or unhealthy?
WF: Freud said a person is basically healthy if he or she can love and work effectively.
By love he meant having a happy and satisfying marriage, and by work he meant having a job that is meaningful and interesting. Adler expanded the category (a group of similar things) of love to mean good interpersonal relationships, which usually, but not always, include marriage. The American psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan, who was never married himself, didn’t believe you have to be married to be mentally healthy. However, he did believe that all psychological problems are some form of problems with interpersonal relationships.
SC:
How does counseling help improve mental health?
WF: This is a question that behavioral scientists are always trying to answer.
Usually a counselor helps a person understand himself or herself by providing a relationship in which the person feels safe. In this process, people often discover answers and solutions to their problems themselves. Sometimes the helping person will teach the person who comes for help how to use different ways of thinking and behaving that will make things better.

[Traditional Chinese Translation]

[More Information]

[Ashley & Ken]

K: (sigh) Ashley, have you seen a small notebook lying around?
A: No, I haven’t. Why?
K: I think I left it here at the library last night.
A: Oh, sorry, I haven’t seen it. But I’ll make a mental note to ask my co-worker if he’s seen it.
K: Eh, you’ll make a what?
A: I’ll make a mental note. You know, I’ll make a point to remember to ask him.
K: Oh, so to make
a mental note means to remember something?
A: Yes. Someone might make a mental note to pick up their clothes at the dry cleaner. Mental relates to anything having to do with the mind. You can have a mental picture or image of something which means you are visualizing something.
K: I’ve heard of people using mental pictures to help ease their stress.
A: That’s true. If you are really stressed out, you can image yourself relaxing on a beach or somewhere else that you like to be. It will help you relax.
K: Or maybe if you’re trying to accomplish a goal, you can picture yourself achieving that goal.
A: Yes. If you change your mentality, it can affect your attitude and actions.
K: Uh, what is my mentality?
A: Mentality is the way you think. One of the reasons we are different is because we think differently. We have different mentality.
K: I see what you mean, but I don’t see how you can change your mentality.
A: Well, for instance, you may be able to overcome your fear by changing your mentality.
K: How do I do that?
A: I’ll give you an example. I used to be very afraid of public speaking because I have the mentality that everyone was looking at me and that I didn’t have anything good to say. However, I changed that mentality by asking the question
how can I help my audience? Also, I focus on the speech itself rather than on my own nervousness.
K: So, by focusing on your speech and your audience you overcame your fear.
A: Yes, it’s took sometime of course. You can’t change your mentality that easily.
K: well, I’m going to try that trick the next time I give a speech.
A: Great. Maybe you should make a mental note.
K: Good idea.

mental就是心理的、精神的、頭腦的,短語make a mental note of something就是將一件事記在腦子裡,我們閱讀的時候往往會有一個mental picture,就是在腦海裡想像的一個情景。另外一個相關的字是mentality,表示一個人對事情的看法或是想法。

 

[Liz]

Adler expanded the category of love to mean good interpersonal relationships, which usually, but not always, include marriage.
which usually, but not always    second part is not necessary
Adler expanded the category of love to mean good interpersonal relationships, which usually include marriage.
usually          does not mean all the time
Because Mr. Tompson doesn’t come home until late; Mrs. Tompson usually, but not always, leaves dinner on the table for him.
Alice has her own vegetable garden, and she usually, but not always, shares her vegetables with her neighbor.

 

[Michelle]

 

category (n) 種類,範疇
The books in my study were
sorted by category.
我書房裡的書是根據種類來分類的。
There are several d
ifferent categories of cruise ship cabins.
游輪的船艙分成不同的等級。
Software of all categories can be purchased on this website.
所有種類的軟件在這個網站上都可以買到。
interpersonal (adj)
人際的,人際關係的
Sean needs to improve his interpersonal skills to
lead his team.
Sean
要帶領他的團隊必須提高處理人際關係的技巧。
Interpersonal relationship is the key to successful management.
成功管理的關鍵就在於人際關係。
behavioral (adj)
行為的
The children’s behavioral development was carefully recorded by their teacher.
老師很仔細地記錄下小朋友們的行為發展。
Tom teaches behavioral psychology in college.
Tom
在大學裡教行為心理學

 

go over something

1.       to examine or check something carefully 仔細檢查(或審查、查閱)某事

    • Go over your work before you hand it in. 把作業仔細檢查後再交。

2.       to study something carefully, especially by repeating it 反複研究;仔細琢磨

    • He went over the events of the day in his mind(= thought about them carefully). 他心裏反複琢磨白天發生的事。

lie around/about

of a number of things 許多東西 to be spread in an untidy way somewhere 亂放;亂擱

 

trick   /trɪk/ DJ   /trɪk/ KK

  • noun

1.       something that you do to deceive somebody or to annoy somebody as a joke 詭計;花招;計謀;騙局

2.       something that confuses you so that you see, understand, remember, etc. things in the wrong way引起錯覺(或記憶紊亂)的事物

3.       a clever action that somebody/something performs as a way of entertaining people 戲法;把戲

4.       a way of doing something that works well; a good method 技巧;訣竅;竅門

 

Sort

verb

1.       to arrange things in groups or in a particular order according to their type, etc.; to separate things of one type from others 整理;把分類 ~ sth (into sth) VN

    • See also: 

sort-out

2.       to deal with a problem or organize something/somebody in a satisfactory way 妥善處理;把整理好(或安排妥當) often passive informal especially British English VN

 

[Vocabulary]

(Sigmund) Freud [frɔid]弗洛伊德 (1856-1939, 奧地利神經學家、精神病醫學家、精神分析的創始人)
meaningful (adj)
有意義的,有目的的
(Alfred) Adler
阿德勒 (1870-1937, 奧地利精神病學家、心理學家)
category (n)
種類,類別
interpersonal (adj)
人際關係的,人與人之間的
psychological (adj)
心理的,心理學的
behavioral (adj)
行為的,行為科學的

 

unhealthy, Freud, go over, by category, intrepersonal relationships, mental picture, make a mental note of something, mentality, lie around, dry cleaner, ease stress, I’ve heard of, nervousness, trick, psychological problem, behavioral, In this process, sort,  cruise ship cabins, purchased on this website, successful management,  behavioral psychology

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