0818_Water for the World (1)

Clean Water changes lives

[Steve]

Today and tomorrow we are going to continue the topic and give further details about the severity of the world’ water problems and what some people are doing to help.

It’s a very thought-provoking statistic. Every 15mins somewhere in the world one child dies from water-related disease.

Water crisis.

[Chip & Chelsea]

You use water every day and probably take it for granted (forget or fail to remember how special, nice or important it is.)  . When you take a shower, you don’t worrythat the water will stop. When you drink water, you can be confident (sure or certain) it is pretty safe. You never have to worry about not having enough water. It is always available to you. But for nearly one billion people, water is a problem. For those who do not have access to (ability to get/enter/ reach) {= can’t access} safe water, life is a constant (it does not end) struggle(a hard fight).
The problem
In developing countries, clean, safe water is hard to 
come by (get). In fact, entire villages sometimes do not have a clean water source. Villagers cannot turn on a faucet (/ˈfɔː.sɪt//ˈfɑː-/ [C]) to get water but must walk several kilometers to find it. They often have to collect water from dirty rivers and streams. This water is then used for everything from bathing to drinking. When people drink dirty water, they can become very sick. Water-related disease (UN) can even be deadly, especially among children. One child dies every 15 seconds from a water-related disease. 

 [Traditional Chinese Translation]

為世界尋找水資源
乾淨的水能使人們的生命為之改觀 

     
你每天用水,也許把隨時有水可用視為理所當然的事。你沖澡的時候,不會擔心洗到一半可能會停水;喝水的時候,也能夠確信自己喝的水安全無虞。你從來不必擔心沒有足夠的水可以用,因為你從來就不缺水。不過,對於近十億人口而言,水卻是一大問題。對於無法取得安全用水的人來說,生活中時常都有掙扎。

問題何在
     
在開發中國家裡,很難取得乾淨而安全無虞的水。事實上,許多村莊連乾淨的水源都沒有,村民無法轉開水龍頭就有水可用,而是必須走上好幾公里的路程去找水。他們常常必須從骯髒的河流與小溪取水,然後把這些水用在洗澡乃至飲用的各種用途上。飲用髒水可能對健康造成很大的危害。與水有關的疾病甚至可能致命,對兒童而言尤其如此。平均每十五秒就有一名孩童死於和水相關的疾病。 

[More Information]

In developing countries, it’s the women and girls who usually collect the water. They often walk several kilometers to find it – taking as long as eight hours a day! Once filled, their water pots can weigh as much as 20kg. A person living in Sub-Saharan Africa uses about 10 to 20 liters of water each day; in contrast, the average Canadian uses 326 liters of water each day.

[Ashley & Ken]

K: Hey, Ashley. Someone asked me if the library had a water closet? But I didn’t know what to tell them.
A: Of course we have a water closet. Go outside the door and turn left.
K: Oh, did the person mean the bathroom?
A: Yes, they did. A water closet
is another way to say bathroom.
K: Why would someone call a bathroom a water closet?
A: Many people throughout Europe refer to the toilet as the water closet. In history, the toilet was separated from the
bathing/ˈbeɪðɪŋ/ area or bathroom for sanitary reason. The toilet was inside a small closet that became known as the water closet or W.C.
K: Wow, that’s really interesting. Now I’ll know what to say the next time someone ask me about the water closet.
A: Yes, but you
won’t run into (encounter) that too much in America. Most people say restroom or bathroom.  It’s different depending on where you are in the world. In England you go to the loo. In Canada you go to the washroom.
K: Now sometimes the restroom is outside.
A: Yes. Before the flush toilet, people
used to have outhouses. These were outdoor toilets that still exist today in more rural areas.
K: Ashley, what about the public outdoor toilets that you see at concerts?
A: You are probably thinking about portable toilets or Porta-Potties. These are
self-contained moveable toilet.
K: Porta-Potty? You know, i
n a short time I’ll be potty-training my son.
A: Okay. So your days of diaper changing will be over. We often refer to the toilet as the potty for little kids. Potty-training is when the little kids learn how to use the toilet, loo, water closet or whatever you decide to call it.
K: Wow, I didn’t realize there were so many different terms.
Thanks for explaining all that.
A: Now if you travel abroad, you can make sure you use the correct term to avoid confusion.
K: Yes,
indeed.

 

K教授:嗨,阿什利。有人問我,如果圖書館有一個水廁?但我不知道該怎麼告訴他們。
答:當然我們有一個水廁。外出門,左轉。
K
教授:噢,沒有人指的是洗手間嗎?
答:是的,他們做到了。阿水廁,是另一種方式說浴室。
K
教授:為什麼會有人叫一間浴室一水廁?
答:很多人在整個歐洲是指洗手間,水廁。在歷史上,上廁所是分開洗澡/beɪðɪŋ/地區或浴室的衛生原因。廁所是一個小衣櫃內,成為被稱為水廁或廁所
K教授:哇,這真的很有趣。現在,我就知道該說些什麼,下一次有人問我關於水廁。
答:是的,但你不會碰到(遇到)太多在美國。大多數人認為廁所或浴室。這是不同的不同的地方你是在世界上。在英國,你去了洗手間。在加拿大,你去了洗手間。
K
教授:現在,有時上廁所在外面。
答:是的。抽水馬桶前,人們曾經有過外屋。這些戶外廁所仍然存在,今天在更多的農村地區。
K
教授:阿什利,那麼市民戶外廁所,你看到的演唱會?
答:你可能想便攜式廁所或波塔,尿壺。這是自包含的可移動廁所。
K
教授:波塔,廁所?你知道,在很短的時間我會傻的訓練我的兒子。
答:好。所以你的天換尿布也就結束了。我們經常提到的便盆上廁所的小孩。傻的培訓是當小孩學習如何使用廁所,廁所,水廁或無論你決定調用它。
K
教授:哇,我不知道有這麼多不同的條件。感謝您解釋這一切。
答:現在,如果你出國旅遊,您可以確保您使用正確的術語,以避免混亂。
K
教授:是的,的確。

今天這一課講到水的重要性,水可以用來bathing(洗澡)。而bathroom字面上是洗澡間,但是對美國人而言bathroom其實就是廁所,縱使一間不能洗澡的公共廁所也叫做bathroom。我們知道,廁所有時候也用W.C.來表示,就是water closet/ˈklɒzɪt/的縮寫,但是water closet是歐洲的用法,在英國廁所還有另外一個名稱the loo,而加拿大人還會用washroom來表示廁所。在古時候沒有抽水馬桶的時代,人們用的是outhouses,也就是一個遠離主建築的木頭隔間的戶外廁所,現在雖然outhouses已經很少見,但是在一些大型的戶外演唱會往往會看到portable toilet,也可以稱為Porta-Potties,這是那種臨時性的活動廁所。

[Liz]

[Michelle]

 

Take something for granted (idiom) 把某事物都做事理所當然的。Take someone/something for granted 也可以指不關心不注意
*Children tend to take their parents’ loving care for granted.
孩子們常常會把父母親的照顧當作是理所當然的。
*Mark took his wife for granted for so long that she couldn’t stand it anymore.
Mark
長久以來都不把妻子當作一回事他太太再也無法忍受了。
Come by (phr. v.) 得到,獲得。
*Such a great opportunity is hard to come by. You should take it!
這好的機會很難得有。你應該要把握他。
*Such a good guy as Joseph
is hard to come by.
Joseph這麼好的人很難得再碰上。
*Henry couldn’t explain how he came by his nasty(dangerous or serious
危險的;嚴重的)cut.
Henry
無法解釋為什麼會有這麼嚴重的傷口。

Tickets to very popular events are hard to come by.
Faucet (n.) 水龍頭。
*The plumber replaced the leaking faucet with a new one.
水管工人把漏水的水龍頭換了一個新的。
*When I turn on the faucet, only dirty water
comes out.
當我打開水龍頭的時候,只有髒水跑出來。
*Dad connected the
hose to the faucet and started to water the lawn.
爸爸把水管接上水龍頭開始幫草坪澆水。 
Access [ˈækses] (n.) 1. (+ to) 接近,進入,使用。2. (+ to) 通道,入口,門路。(v.) (電腦的)存取。
Accession (n.) 1. reaching a rank or position 達到某一及別或地位。2. thing added, esp a new item in a library, museum, etc 添加物,添加。3. 允許進入。
*The only access to the farmhouse is across the fields.
要到那農舍去唯有穿過田地。
*Students must have access to a good library. 
學生要有使用好圖書館的便利條件。
*get/gain access to classified information
得到接觸秘密情報的機會。
*recent accessions to the art gallery
美術館最近增添的展品。
*the accession of new members to the party
新黨員的增加。
*If these problems are solved, we will support Russia’s accession to the WTO.
如果這些問題得到解決,我們將支持俄羅斯加入世貿組織

used to verb  /ˈjuːst tə/ DJ   /’just tə/ KK   /ˈjuːst tu/ DJ   /’just tu/ KK

1.           used to say that something happened continuously or frequently during a period in the past (用於過去持續或經常發生的事)曾經 modal verb

2.           used to show that a particular thing always happened or was true in the past, especially if it no longer happens or is no longer true

    • I used to live in London. 我曾經在倫敦居住過。
    • We used to go sailing on the lake in summer. 從前的夏天,我們經常泛舟湖上。
    • I didn’t use to like him much when we were at school. 以前我們同學時,我並不太喜歡他。
    • You used to see a lot of her, didn’t you? 你過去常見她吧?
    • he used to live in Glasgow.
    • She used to love cats but one attacked her and she doesn’t like them anymore.
    • You don’t come and see me like you used to.
    • When we were younger, we used not to be allowed to drink coffee.
    • not standard  He did used to work there, didn’t he?

used adjective (FAMILIAR) 

be used to sth/sb

to be familiar with something or someone

We’re used to tourists here – we get thousands every year.

[+ -ing verb] She was not used to speaking Cantonese.

Eventually you’ll get/become used to the smells of the laboratory.

 

[Vocabulary]

take something for granted (idiom) 視為理所當然 In developed countries we take many things for granted like hot showers, warm beds and clean water.
access (n)
使用的機會;進入的權利 Only the president and his staff have access to that secret file.
faucet (n)
水龍頭 Melanie replaced her old kitchen faucet with a new one.
disease (n)
疾病 Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States.

Take it for granted, a constant struggle, incredible (difficult to believe), a major problem, for sanitary reason, more rural areas, in a short time I’ll be potty-training my son, nasty, hose

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