8_7_Nicolaus Copernicus: Moving Astronomy Forward(3)

History credits this astronomer with moving the earth
This astronomer changed the way people understood the world



 Fascinating character: diplomat, governor, economist, artist, jurist, military leader, and translator. It’s pretty amazing.

On day three of the article

[Chip & Chelsea]

While his conclusions would answer astronomers’ questions, Copernicus was well aware that “moving the Earth” would shake the foundations of everyone else’s worldview. So sometimes before 1514, he carefully revealed his conclusions, gradually introducing them in an essay he sent only to various colleagues in philosophy and astronomy. Over the next several years, he refined his results while his theory circulated around Europe, spreading his reputation as a remarkable (unusual or special and therefore surprising and worth mentioning) astronomer.

reputation noun 

/ˌrep.jʊˈteɪ.ʃən/ [C usually singular U]

the opinion that people in general have about someone or something, or how much respect or admiration someone or something receives, based on past behaviour or character

The company has a worldwide reputation for quality.

She has the reputation of being a good doctor.

His reputation was destroyed when he was caught stealing some money.

The hotel has a bad/good reputation.

He earned/established/gained/acquired a reputation as an entertaining speaker.

seasoned   /ˈsiːznd/ DJ   /’sizṇd/ KK adjective

1.           of a person having a lot of experience of a particular activity 富有經驗的;老於此道的usually before noun

2.           of food 食物 with salt, pepper, etc. added to it 調好味的;加了作料的

In 1539, a young mathematician named Georg Rheticus came to study under the seasoned (very seasoned) 66-year-old astronomer. Fascinated by his conclusions, Rheticus worked with Copernicus to publish an introduction to his sun-centered universe model. Its success pushed Copernicus to complete and publish his entire, massive six-volume /ˈvɒl.juːm/ work, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, at the end of his life. Legend holds (believed) that Copernicus held a published copy of his life’s work on his deathbed on May 24, 1543.
In subsequent (following) years, astronomers built upon Copernicus’ conclusions, continuing to challenge the previous perspective. By the 1700s, it was nearly impossible to find an astronomer who wasn’t convinced of the Copernicus model’s accuracy. Copernicus’ impact on both astronomy and how we pursue knowledge today has truly been astronomical.

[Ashley & Ken]

K: Hey, Ashley. Someone left this book on the table.
A: Oh, hmm. How to write a good essay? I bet it belongs to a student. Thanks. I’ll
hold on to(onto) 保存某物it.
K: How do you know it belongs to a student?
A: Well, students write lots of essays.
K: So, an essay is like a paper?
A: Yes,
academic essays are called papers. Although papers tend to be longer, especially research papers.
K: Don’t you need to write an essay to get into college?
A: Yes, you’re talking about the
college essay which is written by a potential student as part of his application to university.
K: So, the university may learn more about the students from the essays.
A: Yes. And some universities put a lot of emphasis on a college essay when they review applications.
K: So,
what other essays are there besides academic and college essays?
A: Well, you might see essays in magazines or newspapers. And those are often written from the author’s personal point of view.
Where in the newspaper might I find this kind of essay?
A: In the Op-Ed Section which
stands for Opinion and Editorial.
K: Op-ed, I have to remember that. Uh…
I think the owner of the book just showed up.
A: I think you’re right.

今天的課文提到Copernicus借由一篇essay小心翼翼地透露了他的推論,essay在這裡就是一篇文章,我們在學校常常要寫essays,另一個同義字是paper,但是paper尤其是research paper是比較長的報告。另外在美國申請大學時也要寫一篇college essay,通常這是一篇可以自由發揮的文章或者自傳,為的就是要讓招生委員會能夠更深入地認識這個申請人。在報刊雜誌也會看到essay,這種essay是短文或者評論,它通常出現在報紙的Op-Ed Sectionop-ed表示Opinion and Editorial,也就是專欄版。在Op-Ed出現的文章大多是專欄作家、著名的學者或名人所撰寫的評論性的文章。



seasoned (adj) 經驗豐富的

Season (v.) 1. (食物)調味。2. (木頭)風乾後適用。In season (指食物)當令的,在旺季<->out of seasonThe season’s greeting用於聖誕節問候語。Season-ticket長期票

*Season the chicken with pepper.
*Mix the ingredients and season to taste (= add the amount of salt etc that you think tastes right).
*Strawberries are cheaper when they’re in season.
*well-seasoned oak, birch, etc
The seasoned traveler eventually became a writer and recorded all of his experiences in a book.
The seasoned
real-estate agent has many faithful clients.


hold (v)
The little girl still holds the belief that her mom will come back.
legend holds that 傳說中相信或認為某件事情是真的
Legend holds that Mozart could
compose music spontaneously.
astronomical (adj) 龐大的,極大地 very large 
The new computer system can process astronomical amount of data in a very short period of time.


Subsequent (adj.) [] later, following 後來的,隨後的。Subsequently (adv.)
Subsequent to (prep) 之後。
Consequent (adj.) [] (+ on/upon) happening as a result of a particular event or situation 有某事物引起的,隨之發生的。Consequently (adv.)
 sequent指接續而來的,sub- 指在之後。Con指一起。
*The first and all subsequent visits were kept secret.
*He confessed to other crimes subsequent to the bank robbery.
*His resignation and the consequent public uproar affect employees’ moods.
*the rise in prices consequent upon the failure of the crops 


[Traditional Chinese Translation]




worldview (n) 世界觀 Every person has a worldview that has been shaped by his or her culture and experiences.
refine (v)
mathematician (n)
seasoned (adj)
經驗豐富的 Because Dave is such a seasoned traveler, I feel comfortable going on a trip that he is leading.
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 
hold (v)
認為,相信 People tend to hold beliefs that are similar to those of their families.
subsequent (adj)
astronomical (adj)
龐大的,無法估量的Because of the worldwide financial crisis, the debt of many nations is astronomical.

Copernicus challenged the conclusions of paramount Ptolemy, and altered the way that people thought about the universe.

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