8_6_Nicolaus Copernicus: Moving Astronomy Forward(2)

History credits this astronomer with moving the earth
This astronomer changed the way people understood the world



…copernicus, a man’s history is credited with moving an earth.

If you did not know any better, you would think the sun was travelling around a motionless earth.

Astrology is not thought to be scientific.


[Chip & Chelsea]

From Bologna, Copernicus went on to the University of Padua to study medicine, which at the time closely linked to astrology. While studying how the movements of heavens’ spheres affected a person’s health, Copernicus became an expert on the night sky.
Setting at the University of Ferrara, his fourth and final university, Copernicus obtained his first and only degree: a doctorate in canon law (教會法規). With his broad education complete, Copernicus returned to Frombork in 1510 to resume his duties with the church.
The revolutionary astronomer
revolutionary adjective (NEW AND IMPORTANT) /ˌrev.əˈluː.ʃən.ər.i/ /-er-/

completely new and having a great effect

Penicillin was a revolutionary drug.

The twentieth century brought about revolutionary changes in our lifestyles.



In Copernicus’ day, Europe believed the Earth sat motionless at the center of the universe. People were convinced the sun, moon and planets revolved around the Earth, and the second-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy had “proven” it with mathematics.
Although busy with church work, Copernicus made time for his scientific work, finding several problems with Ptolemy’s Earth-centered model. More significantly, Copernicus found that a sun-centered model with a revolving Earth fit the data much better.
Although centuries of tradition and superstition suggested otherwise, mathematical calculations convinced Copernicus that Earth was not fixed at the universe’s center. Instead, he realized Earth moved with the other planets in yearly revolutions around the sun. 

[Ashley & Ken]

K: Hi, Ashley.
A: Hi, Ken.
K: I saw the notice on
the bulletin board about Dr. Brown’s seminar.

bulletin board noun  [C]

US for noticeboard

a place on a computer system where users can read messages and add their own.

seminar noun 

/ˈsem.ɪ.nɑːr/ /-nɑːr/ [C]

an occasion when a teacher or expert and a group of people meet to study and discuss something

I attended practically every lecture and seminar when I was a student.

I’m giving a seminar on the latest developments in genetic engineering next week.

a seminar room

Compare: lecture


A: Ah, yes. Dr. Brown will be giving
a talk on detective stories this weekend.
K: Detective stories? Shouldn’t he be talking about a medical or health topic?
A: No, Dr. Brown is a literary scholar(
A specialist in a particular branch of study.).
K: But he is also a doctor, right?
A: Right, he has a PhD from Harvard and that makes them a doctor. Oh, you must be thinking that he is medical doctor.
K: Yeah, what other doctors are there?
A: If you have a PhD or doctor’s degree, you are also a doctor.
K: A doctor’s degree?
A: Yes, you can also call it a doctorate which is the highest degree one can earn in a given field. Once you obtain one, you are a doctor.
K: So,
what does PhD stand for?
A: Doctor of Philosophy.
K: Philosophy? But you said Dr. Brown is a literary scholar. So, he should have a doctor of literature, right?
A: You would think that. But that’s just an
academic convention.

the way in which something is done that most people in a society expect and consider to be polite or the right way to do it 習俗;常規;慣例 countable uncountable

§  social conventions 社會習俗

§  By convention the deputy leader is always a woman. 按慣例,這一領導副職總是由女性擔任。

§  She is a young woman who enjoys flouting conventions. 她是一位喜歡無視傳統習俗的年輕


You can be a doctor of philosophy in physics or a doctor of philosophy in geology or a doctor of philosophy in philosophy.
K: And Dr. Brown has a doctor of philosophy
in literature.
A: You’ve got it.
K: Okay. Well, in that case, I think I’ll go to his seminar.
A: Let me get you
a sign up sheet.
K: Thanks.

博士和醫生英語都叫做doctor,有時候會產生誤會。這是因為博士所擁有的學位是a doctor’s degree,也可以叫做a doctorate,或是用更簡單的縮寫Ph.D.,就是Doctor of Philosophy的縮寫。philosophy是哲學,但並不是說所有的博士學位都是拿哲學科系的學位,philosophy這個字來自於希臘文,意思是愛好、智慧,所以任何一個學科的最高學位都是a Doctor of Philosophy。比如說文學博士學位叫做a Doctor of Philosophy in Literature,物理學博士學位a Doctor of Philosophy in Physics,而哲學博士學位就是a Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy



[課文] Although busy with church work, Copernicus made time for his scientific work…
->Although Copernicus was busy with various priestly responsibilities, he made time for his scientific work.
句型] Although + subject + be +adjective, subject + verb
Shorten it
-> Although + adjective, subject + verb.
*Although Andy was angry at his younger brother, he still helped him clean his room.
->Although angry at his younger brother, Andy still helped him clean his room.
*Although Kathy was confused with the man, she didn’t want to stop and ask someone for directions.
->Although confused with the map, Kathy didn’t want to stop and ask someone for directions.



Resume [rɪˈzuːm] (v.) 重新開始,停頓後再繼續。
*The manager resumed job right after his surgery.
*Bobby resumed reading after he answered the phone.
Revolve (v.) 旋轉,運轉。
Revolve around someone or something 指以某個對象為中心。
*There are many satellites revolving around the Earth.
*The Earth revolves around
the Sun once a year.
Our lives revolve around our kids.
Superstition (n.) 迷信,迷信的行為。
*Few people still believe in the old superstition that the number 13 is unlucky.
*Superstition and
ignorance kept the tribes people from communicating with the outside world.
Sphere [sfɪr] (n.) 球體,球形。Cube立方體,cylinder圓柱體,cone圓錐體,pyramid角錐體。The Pyramid埃及金字塔(P大寫) 
Canon [ˈkænən] (n.) 1. general rule, standard or principle by which sth is judged 總的規則,標準,原則。2. 真經,真作。3. 大教堂教士。
*This film offends against all the canons of good taste.
*the canon of Holy Scripture <
*the Shakespeare canon
[Daily Usage] 
OK->Sales revenue of the company dropped sharply (by 10 percent) in only week.
Better->Sales revenue of the company dropped by a sharp 10 percent sharply in only week.
OK->Many factors can affect one student’s learning (interest, family, friendship, etc.).
Better->Many factors can affect one student’s learning such as interest, family and friendship.
*The CEO (chief executive officer) is the person with the most authority in a large company.

executive   /ɪɡˈzekjətɪv/ DJ


a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization (公司或機構的)經理,主管領導,管理人員 countable

§  advertising/business/sales executives 廣告/業務/銷售主管

§  a chief/senior/top executive in a computer firm 一家計算機公司的總裁/資深主管/高層主管

a group of people who run a company or an organization (統稱公司或機構的)行政領導,領導層C + sing./pl. verb

§  The union’s executive has/have yet to reach a decision. 工會領導層還有待做出決策。


connected with managing a business or an organization, and with making plans and decisions 經營管理的;經理的;決策的 only before noun

§  She has an executive position in a finance company. 她是一家金融公司的領導層成員。

§  executive decisions/duties/jobs/positions 經營管理的決策/職責/工作/職位

§  the executive dining room 管理人員食堂

having the power to put important laws and decisions into effect 有執行權的;實施的;行政的only before noun

§  executive authority 行政當局

§  an executive board/body/committee/officer 執行董事會;行政機構;執行委員會;行政長官

§  Executive power is held by the president. 執行權由董事長掌握。


*According to shape People are divided into four categories: (1) tall, (2) low, (3) fat, and (4) thin.
= According to shape People are divided into four categories: 1. tall, 2. low, 3. fat, and 4. thin.
Warning: not to use 1), 2), 3)
*Make sure you give the ticket(s) to Bill. <
*Make sure you give all tickets to Bill. <

[Traditional Chinese Translation]




sphere (n) 天體;球體 Many sports involve hitting, throwing or kicking some kind of sphere toward a goal.
resume (v)
恢復(職位);(中斷後)繼續 Let’s take a lunch break and resume this meeting at 1:30.
revolve (v)
環繞;旋轉 The moon revolves around the Earth as the Earth revolves around the sun.
superstition (n)
迷信 Because of an old superstition, my grandma is afraid to drink lemonade during a full moon.


the bulletin board

a sign up sheet.

Although just keeping his head above water, Steve still donates the rest of his salary to the charity monthly.

Although just keeping his head above water, Steve still donates the rest of his monthly salary to charity.

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