History credits this astronomer with moving the earth
This astronomer changed the way people understood the world
to believe or say that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially something good 認為是…的功勞；把…歸於 VN usually passive ~ A (with B) ~ B to A
§ The company is credited with inventing the industrial robot. 發明工業機器人是那家公司的功勞。
§ The invention of the industrial robot is credited to the company. 工業機器人的發明應歸功於那家公司。
§ All the contributors are credited on the title page. 所有撰稿人的姓名均刊登在扉頁上。
To challenge the theory of his time.
[Chip & Chelsea]
Nicolaus Copernicus[kəuˈpəːnikəs] (1473- 1543) changed the world by challenging the common beliefs of his time. He completely altered(changed) the way people thought about their world and the universe. Thanks to Copernicus’ theories, the entire Western world began to shift its perspective (a way of thinking, thought about sth reality) from an Earth-centered universe to a sun-centered system.
Our marriage changed my perspective on life and love.
The broadly(generally) educated student
Copernicus was born into a wealthy merchant family in Poland in 1473. When his father died, 10-year-old Copernicus moved in with his uncle, who later became a Roman Catholic bishop (天主教主教). While raising Copernicus, his uncle directed both the boy’s advancement in the church and his education.
Copernicus began his university studies at the University of Cracow where mathematics, astronomy and astrology sparked(cause the start of) his interest. But he left before finishing his degree, as was common at the time, and went to work for the church in Frombork. Then he followed in his uncle’s footsteps by studying at the University of Bologna. While there, he lived with Domenico Maria Novara, the school’s chief astronomy professor. Novara was probably the first person Copernicus had ever met who dared to challenge the 1,400-year-old conclusions of the era’s paramount /ˈpærəmaʊnt/(uppermost) astronomer: Ptolemy.
Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural objects in space.
Astrology is the study of the movements of the planets, sun, moon, and stars in the belief that these movements can have an influence on people’s lives.
When you study history, not everything is neat and orderly. Copernicus’ nationality, for example, has been hotly debated for many years. It stems from the fact that Copernicus was living in a German speaking territory, which happened to belong to Poland. This is why some encyclopedias state Copernicus was Polish but others say Copernicus was a child of a German family under the authority of the Polish king.
1. A neat place, thing, or person is tidy and smart, and has everything in the correct place.
2. Someone who is neat keeps their home or possessions tidy, with everything in the correct place.
3. A neat object, part of the body, or shape is quite small and has a smooth outline.
[Ashley & Ken]
K: So, how did you become a librarian /laɪˈbreə.ri.ən/?
A: Well, I’ve always enjoyed reading and my aunt was a librarian. So when I was in high school, she suggested that I go into library science. So I decide to follow in her footsteps.
K: You followed in her footsteps? So you walked with her to the library?
A: No, Ken. That’s just an expression. If you follow in someone’s footsteps, you do the same job in your life as that person.
K: Oh, so if my dad was a teacher and I became a teacher then I followed in my father’s footsteps?
A: Exactly, and we usually use this phrase to describe someone who followed the example of a family member.
K: Hmm. what about taking after someone? Doesn’t that mean the same thing?
A: No, it doesn’t. If you take after someone you either look like or behave like that person. And this phrase is also use to describe people in the same family. People often say 「I take after my mom.」 And they mean 「I act like my mom.」
K: Oh, so it’s the same as 「a chip off the old block」.
A: Well, 「a chip off the old block」 is usually used to describe someone who behaves in the same way as his father or mother.
K: Where does it come from?
A: Hmm. I think that’s a question for Studio Classroom’s editor in chief Doris. Let’s contact her.
D: 「A chip off the old block」 actually comes from carpentry, because a block is made of wood. The early form of the expression was 「chip of the same block」 meaning that person or thing was made of the same material as somebody else. And now the phrase means inheriting a trait or characteristic from one’s father or mother.
1. A distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
2. A genetically determined characteristic
K: I see. Well, Ashley, I think you made the right decision to become a librarian.
A: I think so too.
今天的課文講到Nicolaus Copernicus followed in his uncle’s footsteps，字面上是說他跟著他叔叔的腳步走，意思就是步他的後塵、繼承衣缽的意思。另外一個短語是take after someone，take after someone通常用在家人之間，就是遺傳到某人的意思，比如說一個女兒take after媽媽，就是遺傳到媽媽的長相或者個性。還有一個相關的短語是a chip off the old block，字面上是說一塊木頭掉下來的一個碎片，意思就是同一個模子印出來的。這句話通常用來讚美某個人的長相或者言行舉止很像他的父親或母親。
Perspective (n.) spect字根表示看的意思。看法，觀點。
*The award-winning movie looks at the Civil War from a slave’s perspective.
*The new manager brought a fresh perspective to our department.
Astrology (n.) aster字根表示星星，logy字根表示某種學理。占星學。
Astronomy (n.) 天文學。
*People study astrology because they believe the stars influence their futures.
Paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] (adj.) para字首有超越的意思，mount字根是指山。至高無上的，最重要的。
*There are many important factors in running a school, but providing outstanding teaching is paramount.
Merchant (n.) 批發商，經營某貨物的商人。
Merchant bank (n.) 商業銀行。
*an import-export merchant 進出口批發商。
*a coal-merchant 煤商，a wine-merchant 酒商。
Neat (n.) 1. (of things) arranged in an orderly way, done carefully, tidy (指事物)安排有序的，細心完成的，整齊的。2. (指人)喜歡整齊的，細心的。2. [口] fine, splendid好的，絕妙的。
*neat work, writing, etc 精心的作品，寫的勻整的字。
*She has a neat figure. 她身材勻稱。
*He gave a neat summary of the financial situation.
*a neat movie, idea, car 好的電影，主義，汽車。
Encyclopedia [ɪnˌsaɪkləˈpiːdiə] (n.) 百科全書。
Encyclopedic (adj.) 百科全書的，學識淵博的。
[USAGE] comprehensive, comprehensible, understanding
comprehensive ~ including all the necessary facts, details, or problems that need to be dealt with 廣泛的，全面的，綜合的。
comprehensible ~ possible to understand 易於理解的。
understanding ~ sympathetic about people’s problems 體諒的，通情達理的。
*a comprehensive description, account, report, etc 全面的描述，敘述，報導等。
*She has a comprehensive grasp of the subject.
*His report was barely comprehensible. 他的報告很難理解。
*My parents are very understanding. 我父母親很通情達理
[Traditional Chinese Translation]
astronomy (n) 天文學
alter (v) 改變
perspective (n) 觀點
broadly (adv) 廣泛地
Roman Catholic Bishop 天主教主教
astrology (n) 占星術
spark (v) 鼓舞
paramount (adj) 極為重要的
Follow in one’s footsteps
His perspective alters our thought, so we want to follow in his footsteps.
He brought us with the new perspective and altered our antiquated thought of fitness. Many of us have followed in his footsteps since.