8_5_Nicolaus Copernicus: Moving Astronomy Forward(1)

History credits this astronomer with moving the earth
This astronomer changed the way people understood the world

credit

to believe or say that somebody is responsible for doing something, especially something good 認為是的功勞;把歸於 VN usually passive ~ A (with B) ~ B to A

§  The company is credited with inventing the industrial robot. 發明工業機器人是那家公司的功勞。

§  The invention of the industrial robot is credited to the company. 工業機器人的發明應歸功於那家公司。

§  All the contributors are credited on the title page. 所有撰稿人的姓名均刊登在扉頁上。

 

[Steve]

To challenge the theory of his time.

 

[Chip & Chelsea]

Nicolaus Copernicus[kəuˈpəːnikəs] (1473- 1543) changed the world by challenging the common beliefs of his time. He completely altered(changed) the way people thought about their world and the universe. Thanks to Copernicus’ theories, the entire Western world began to shift its perspective (a way of thinking, thought about sth reality) from an Earth-centered universe to a sun-centered system.

Our marriage changed my perspective on life and love.


The broadly(generally) educated student
Copernicus was born into a wealthy 
merchant family in Poland in 1473. When his father died, 10-year-old Copernicus moved in with his uncle, who later became a Roman Catholic bishop (天主教主教). While raising Copernicus, his uncle directed both the boy’s advancement in the church and his education.
Copernicus began his university studies at the University of Cracow where mathematics, 
astronomy and astrology sparked(cause the start of) his interest. But he left before finishing his degree, as was common at the time, and went to work for the church in Frombork. Then he followed in his uncle’s footsteps by studying at the University of Bologna. While there, he lived with Domenico Maria Novara, the school’s chief astronomy professor. Novara was probably the first person Copernicus had ever met who dared to challenge the 1,400-year-old conclusions of the era’s paramount /ˈpærəmaʊnt/(uppermost)  astronomer: Ptolemy.

Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural objects in space.

Astrology is the study of the movements of the planets, sun, moon, and stars in the belief that these movements can have an influence on people’s lives.

 

MORE INFORMATION
When you study history, not everything is 
neat and orderly. Copernicus’ nationality, for example, has been hotly debated for many years. It stems from the fact that Copernicus was living in a German speaking territory, which happened to belong to Poland. This is why some encyclopedias state Copernicus was Polish but others say Copernicus was a child of a German family under the authority of the Polish king.

neat

1.           A neat place, thing, or person is tidy and smart, and has everything in the correct place.

2.           Someone who is neat keeps their home or possessions tidy, with everything in the correct place.

3.           A neat object, part of the body, or shape is quite small and has a smooth outline.

 

 

[Ashley & Ken]

K: So, how did you become a librarian /laɪˈbreə.ri.ən/?
A: Well, I’ve always enjoyed reading and my aunt was a librarian. So when I was in high school, she suggested that I
go into library science. So I decide to follow in her footsteps.
K: You followed in her footsteps? So you walked with her to the library?
A: No, Ken. That’s just an expression. If you follow in someone’s footsteps, you do the same job in your life as that person.
K: Oh, so if my dad was a teacher and I became a teacher then I followed in my father’s footsteps?
A: Exactly, and we usually use this phrase to describe someone who followed the example of a family member.
K: Hmm.
what about taking after someone? Doesn’t that mean the same thing?
A: No, it doesn’t. If you take after someone
you either look like or behave like that person. And this phrase is also use to describe people in the same family. People often say I take after my mom. And they mean I act like my mom.
K: Oh, so it’s the same as
a chip off the old block.
A: Well,
a chip off the old block is usually used to describe someone who behaves in the same way as his father or mother.
K: Where does it come from?
A: Hmm. I think that’s a question for Studio Classroom’s editor in chief Doris. Let’s contact her.
K: Okay.

D: A chip off the old block actually comes from carpentry, because a block is made of wood. The early form of the expression was chip of the same block meaning that person or thing was made of the same material as somebody else. And now the phrase means inheriting a trait or characteristic from one’s father or mother.

trait

1.           A distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person

2.           A genetically determined characteristic


K: I see. Well, Ashley, I think you made the right decision to become a librarian.
A: I think so too.

今天的課文講到Nicolaus Copernicus followed in his uncle’s footsteps,字面上是說他跟著他叔叔的腳步走,意思就是步他的後塵、繼承衣缽的意思。另外一個短語是take after someonetake after someone通常用在家人之間,就是遺傳到某人的意思,比如說一個女兒take after媽媽,就是遺傳到媽媽的長相或者個性。還有一個相關的短語是a chip off the old block,字面上是說一塊木頭掉下來的一個碎片,意思就是同一個模子印出來的。這句話通常用來讚美某個人的長相或者言行舉止很像他的父親或母親。


[Liz]

[Michelle]

 

Perspective (n.) spect字根表示看的意思。看法,觀點。
*The award-winning movie looks at the Civil War
from a slave’s perspective.
這部獲獎電影用一個黑奴的角度來詮釋南北戰爭。
*The new manager
brought a fresh perspective to our department.
這位新的經理替我們部門帶來新的觀點。
Astrology (n.) aster字根表示星星,logy字根表示某種學理。占星學。
Astronomy (n.) 天文學。
*People study astrology because they believe the stars influence their futures.
人們研究占星學因為他們相信星星會影響他們的未來。
Paramount [ˈpærəmaunt] (adj.) para字首有超越的意思mount字根是指山。至高無上的,最重要的。
*There are many important factors in running a school, but providing
outstanding teaching is paramount.
建一所學校有許多重要的因素,但是提供優良的教學是最重要的。
Merchant (n.) 批發商,經營某貨物的商人。
Merchant bank (n.) 商業銀行。
*an import-export merchant
進出口批發商。
*a coal-merchant
煤商,a wine-merchant 酒商。
Neat (n.) 1. (of things) arranged in an orderly way, done carefully, tidy (指事物)安排有序的,細心完成的,整齊的。2. (指人)喜歡整齊的,細心的。2. [] fine, splendid好的,絕妙的。
*neat work, writing, etc
精心的作品,寫的勻整的字。
*She has a neat figure.
她身材勻稱。
*He gave a neat summary of the financial situation. 
他對財務狀況作了簡要的概括。 
*a neat movie, idea, car
好的電影,主義,汽車。
Encyclopedia [ɪnˌsaɪkləˈpiːdiə] (n.) 百科全書。
Encyclopedic (adj.) 百科全書的,學識淵博的。
[USAGE] 
comprehensive, comprehensible, understanding
comprehensive ~ including all the necessary facts, details, or problems that need to be dealt with 
廣泛的,全面的,綜合的。
comprehensible ~ possible to understand 
易於理解的。
understanding ~ sympathetic about people’s problems 
體諒的,通情達理的。
*a comprehensive description, account, report, etc
全面的描述,敘述,報導等。
*She has a comprehensive grasp of the subject.
*His report was barely comprehensible.
他的報告很難理解。
*My parents are very understanding.
我父母親很通情達理

 

[Traditional Chinese Translation]

哥白尼的天文革命
哥白尼這位「移動地球」的天文學家已名留青史

      尼可拉斯哥白尼(生於一七四三年,卒於一五四三年)借由挑戰當時很普遍的信念而改變了全世界。他徹底改變了人們對世界以及宇宙的思考模式,而多虧了哥白尼的理論,整個西方世界才開始將其觀點從一個以地球為中心的宇宙,改為以太陽為中心的體系。

博學多聞的學生
     
哥白尼於一四七三年誕生於波蘭富商之家。父親過世後,十歲的哥白尼搬舅舅家,他的舅舅後來後來成為天主教會的主教,而舅舅養育哥白尼的方式,是讓他在教會發展和接受教育兩方面同時並進。
     
哥白尼在克拉科大學展開大學課業,而他也開始對數學、天文學和占星學產生興趣。不過他在拿到學位之前就暫離大學,而到弗勞恩堡的教會工作,這種做法在當時相當普遍。之後他追隨舅舅的腳步到波隆那大學讀書。在那裡時,他和學校首席天文學教授多明尼克馬利亞諾瓦拉同住。在那個時代裡,托勒密仍被視為地位最高的天文學家,而當時他(以地球為宇宙中心)的推論已經有一千四百年的歷史了;在哥白尼遇見過的人當中,諾瓦拉大概是第一個敢於挑戰托勒密推論的人。

 

[Vocabulary]

astronomy (n) 天文學
alter (v)
改變
perspective (n)
觀點
broadly (adv)
廣泛地
Roman Catholic Bishop
天主教主教
astrology (n)
占星術
spark (v)
鼓舞
paramount (adj)
極為重要的

 

 

Follow in one’s footsteps

His perspective alters our thought, so we want to follow in his footsteps.

He brought us with the new perspective and altered our antiquated thought of fitness. Many of us have followed in his footsteps since.

This entry was posted in Studio_C and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / 變更 )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / 變更 )

Facebook照片

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / 變更 )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / 變更 )

連結到 %s