claim verb (SAY)
[T] to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it
[+ (that)] The company claims (that) it is not responsible for the pollution in the river.
[+ to infinitive] He claims to have met the President, but I don’t believe him.
All parties have claimed success in yesterday’s elections.
An unknown terrorist group has claimed responsibility for this morning’s bomb attack.
The shrinking Arctic ice invites a rush of exploration
Which countries have rights to the Arctic’s natural gas and oil?
There is no denying that the Arctic ice is now shrinking.
To have/deny/make/put in a claim
Chelsea & Chip
Our world is on the verge of a modern-day resource rush in the earth’s Arctic regions. For decades, we’ve suspected that the Arctic Ocean holds an abundance of natural resources. Some scientists estimate that as much as 30 percent of the world’s undiscovered natural gas and 13 percent of its undiscovered oil lie beneath its waters. We’ve always assumed these lucrative resources would always be unreachable, locked under the thick Arctic ice. But a warming climate and rapidly melting ice cap (冰冠，冰帽) have now put these resources within reach.
on/to the verge of something/of doing something = be almost to
very near to the moment when somebody does something or something happens 瀕於；接近於；行將
§ He was on the verge of tears. 他差點兒哭了出來。 On the verge of laughter.
§ They are on the verge of signing a new contract for a further two years’ work. 他們即將簽訂兩年繼續工作的新合同。
§ These events left her on the verge of having a nervous breakdown. 這些事件使得她的精神瀕於崩潰。
relating to people or things from modern times and not from a time in the past
Modern-day engines are so much more efficient.
modern-day America 當代美國
gold rush 淘金熱
Currently, the biggest question for the countries surrounding those resources is one of ownership: To whom do these resources rightfully理所當然belong? The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty aims to resolve this very question. The treaty states that a country has economic control of all natural resources within 200 nautical miles (海哩) of its coast.
However, it’s also possible for a country to claim possession of ocean territory beyond the 200-nautical-mile boundary. To make this kind of claim, a country must prove that the ocean bottom in question is part of the country’s continental plate (大陸板塊).
treaty /ˈtriːti/ DJ /’tritɪ/ KK
1. a formal agreement between two or more countries （國家之間的）條約，協定 noun
- Irregular: -ies plural
Ashley & Ken
A: Hey, Ken. Is that globe helping you?
K: Yes, Ashley. But I get the Arctic and the Antarctic messed up. They sound very similar.
A: Yes, they do. And some people find them hard to pronounce. Let’s hear from Doris and see what she has to say.
D: The Arctic and the Antarctic are opposite to one another. The Arctic is the most northern region around the North Pole. The Antarctic is the most southern part around the South Pole. The continent of Antarctica is located in the Antarctic region.
K: Oh, that’s right. Here is Antarctica on the globe.
A: Yes. The North and South Poles are opposite to each other. And that’s the same idea with the phrase “polar opposites”.
K: So, if two things are completely opposite they are polar opposites?
A: Yes. For example, my aunt and uncle are polar opposites. My aunt is really organized while my uncle is messy. He forgets to put things where they belong while my aunt is better at keeping things neat and orderly.
K: Even though they are polar opposites, that didn’t stop them from getting married. I guess that’s why they say “opposites attract”.
A: Yes, that’s a good point. Sometimes people who are very different from each other are more easily attracted to each other, opposites attract.
K: You know, that describe two of my friends who are married. They are polar opposites. Dan likes to spend money and go out a lot while Sarah is very practical and saves her money.
A: There you go你說的沒錯. Opposites attract.
K: People can balance each other out. I think it’s good to have differences as long as you can accept them.
A: I agree. And if you’ll excuse me, there is someone I need to help at the counter.
K: Okay. You do that.
Arctic就是北極地區，Antarctic就是南極地區，若是在字尾加一個a，Antarctica是南極洲。pole是極地，所以北極是North Pole，南極是South Pole。因此短語polar opposite就是兩個極端，縱使很多人是polar opposites，但是有另外一個說法，opposites attract那就是異性相吸。
The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty aims to resolve this very question.
very = exact
The U.N.’s Law of the Sea Treaty aims to resolve this exact question.
Is the word “very” necessary? No. it’s used for emphasis.
The neighborhood has had trouble with stray dogs, so the residents met to discuss this very problem.
Sandra has always wondered who her secret admirer is, and now she finally gets to meet this very person.
On the verge of 瀕臨（某種狀態）,某件事情即將發生
Financial burdens left him on the verge of despair.
The swimmer is on the verge of breaking another world record.
lucrative (adj) 有利可圖的,賺錢的
Every advertisement agency is competing for the lucrative contract.
The fashion company’s most lucrative line is children’s wear.
boundary (n) 界限,分界線;界線,限制
Troops are posted near the boundary between the two countries.
Parents should set boundaries and teach their children to respect them.
/ˈnɔː.tɪ.kəl/ /ˈnɑː.t ̬i-/
relating to ships, sailing or sailors
You’re looking very nautical in your navy blue sweater.
/ˈnɔː.tɪ.kli/ /ˈnɑː.t ̬i-/
nautical mile noun
[C] (also sea mile)
a unit of distance used at sea which is equal to 1852 metres
[U] when you have or own something
The possession of large amounts of money does not ensure happiness.
formal I have in my possession a letter which may be of interest to you.
formal He was found in possession of explosives.
[C usually plural] something that you own or that you are carrying with you at any time
Please remember to take all your personal possessions with you when you leave the aircraft.
[C usually plural] the countries that are ruled by another country
a former overseas possession
. territory noun (AREA)
/ˈter.ɪ.tər.i/, /-tri/ /-tɔːr.i/ [Cor U]
(an area of) land or sometimes sea, which is considered as belonging to or connected with a particular country or person
He was shot down in enemy territory.
The UN is sending aid to the occupied territories.
an area that an animal or person tries to control or thinks belongs to them
The robin keeps other birds off that part of the garden – that’s his territory.
/ˌkɒn.tɪˈnen.təl//ˌkɑːn.t ̬ənˈen.t ̬əl/